Electronic Devices in 2020

Electronic Devices in 2020


Computers and electronics play an enormous role in today’s society, impacting everything from communication and medicine to science.

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Although computers are typically viewed as a modern invention involving electronics, computing predates the use of electrical devices. The ancient abacus was perhaps the first digital computing device

Analog computing dates back several millennia as primitive computing devices were used as early as the ancient Greeks and Romans, the most known complex of which being the Antikythera mechanism. Later devices such as the castle clock (1206), slide rule (c. 1624) and Babbage’s Difference Engine (1822) are other examples of early mechanical analog computers.

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The introduction of electric power in the 19th century led to the rise of electrical and hybrid electro-mechanical devices to carry out both digital (Hollerith punch-card machine) and analog (Bush’s differential analyzer) calculation.

 Telephone switching came to be based on this technology, which led to the development of machines that we would recognize as early computers.

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The presentation of the Edison Effect in 1885 provided the theoretical background for electronic devices. Originally in the form of vacuum tubes, electronic components were rapidly integrated into electric devices, revolutionizing radio and later television.

 It was in computers however, where the full impact of electronics was felt. Analog computers used to calculate ballistics were crucial to the outcome of World War II, and the Colossus and the ENIAC, the two earliest electronic digital computers, were developed during the war.

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With the invention of solid-state electronics, the transistor and ultimately the integrated circuit, computers would become much smaller and eventually affordable for the average consumer. Today “computers” are present in nearly every aspect of everyday life, from watches to automobiles.


Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. 

This distinguishes it from classical electrical engineering as it uses active devices to control electron flow by amplification and rectification rather than just using passive effects such as resistance, capacitance and inductance.

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The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the subsequent invention of the vacuum tube which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age.

 This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950, this field was called “radio technology” because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers, and vacuum tubes.

The term “solid-state electronics” emerged after the first working transistor was invented by William Shockley, Walter Houser Brattain and John Bardeen at Bell Labs in 1947.

 The MOSFET (MOS transistor) was later invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. The MOSFET was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses, revolutionizing the electronics industry, and playing a central role in the microelectronics revolution and Digital Revolution.

 The MOSFET has since become the basic element in most modern electronic equipment, and is the most widely used electronic device in the world.

Electronics is widely used in information processing, telecommunication, and signal processing. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality 

and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system; examples are computers or control systems. An electronic system may be a component of another engineered system or a standalone device.

 As of 2019 most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit.

 Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible.

The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering. This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics.

Electronic component

An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system.

 Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by being soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB), to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). 

Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits. Some common electronic components are capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes, transistors, etc. Components are often categorized as active (e.g. transistors and thyristors) or passive (e.g. resistors, diodes, inductors and capacitors).


Vacuum tubes (Thermionic valves) were among the earliest electronic components.They were almost solely responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century. 

They allowed for vastly more complicated systems and gave us radio, television, phonographs, radar, long-distance telephony and much more. They played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid-state devices have all but completely taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.

 The first working point-contact transistor was invented by John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain at Bell Labs in 1947. In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market.

 The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors. Thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were almost exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications.

The MOSFET (MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. The MOSFET was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses.

 Its advantages include high scalability, affordability, low power consumption, and high density. It revolutionized the electronics industry, becoming the most widely used electronic device in the world. 

The MOSFET is the basic element in most modern electronic equipment, and has been central to the electronics revolution, the microelectronics revolution, and the Digital Revolution. The MOSFET has thus been credited as the birth of modern electronics,and possibly the most important invention in electronics.


The electronics industry consists of various sectors. The central driving force behind the entire electronics industry is the semiconductor industry sector,which has annual sales of over $481 billion as of 2018.The largest industry sector is e-commerce, which generated over $29 trillion in 2017. 

The most widely manufactured electronic device is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), with an estimated 13 sex-trillion MOSFETs having been manufactured between 1960 and 2018.

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Corona is No 1 Risk in USA

Corona is No 1 Risk in USA : What is the Federal Government Doing to Fight Corona.

In March, President Trump declared a national emergency over the corona virus pandemic, effectively freeing up to $50 billion in federal funds to help states and territories fight the spread of the virus, which he said would include expanding access to testing.

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Still, there have been many issues with the availability of the corona virus test. Though testing capacity has improved, there are still widespread shortages. In many areas, state health officials and medical providers say they are unable to test as many people as they would like to, and tests remain available only to those who meet specific criteria. Public-health officials say that far more testing — for both the virus and antibodies — will be needed in order to safely reopen the economy.

Speaking April 27, President Trump announced a plan to increase federal support to states to provide increased testing, saying that the U.S. would “double” the number of tests it had been conducting.Currently, the U.S. is conducting about 300,000 tests a day. While an improvement, experts say this still falls far short of the number of tests needed, which is more like 5 million tests a day by June and 20 million tests a day by late July.

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On March 19, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the U.S. would close its borders with Canada and Mexico, barring entry to all nonessential travelers. President Trump has also barred entry of all foreign nationals who have been in high-risk countries, including China, Iran, and much of Europe, within the last 14 days. The CDC has advised against all nonessential travel throughout most of Europe, South Korea, China, and Iran and has advised older and at-risk Americans to avoid travel to any country.

On March 27,President Trump signed a $2 trillion stimulus plan, the largest in modern American history, which will send direct payments of around $1,200 to millions of Americans who earn less than $99,000, along with an additional $500 per child. The first round of deposits went out on April 11.

The plan also substantially expands unemployment benefits, including extending eligibility to freelance and gig workers, and provides aid to businesses and companies in distress. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin has extended the tax-filing deadline to July 15, and President Trump signed another $484 billion relief package in late April, which will provide aid to small businesses and funding for hospitals and testing.

On May 15, the House approved a new $3 trillion relief package, which would include nearly $1 trillion in aid to state and local governments, as well as another round of $1,200 payments to Americans.Researchers have made a number of early steps toward a vaccine that look promising.

A corona virus vaccine that has been tested in eight people appears to be safe and effective, according to the manufacturer, Moderna, which plans to begin additional tests soon.On May 5, Pfizer and the German pharmaceutical company BioNTech announced that they were beginning human trials for a possible coronavirus vaccine in the U.S., and the U.S. government has pledged to provide up to     $1.2  billion for vaccine research   to  the drug company AstrZeneca.

However, U.S. government officials have said that producing a widely available vaccine could take a year to 18 months.On Monday night, President Trump Threatened to permanently cut off U.S. funding to the World Health Organization, which he has accused of failing to act quickly and aggressively to stop the early spread of the virus — a criticism that has been leveled at his own administration.

Trump halted funding to the WHO last month in an apparent attempt to shift the blame for the fallout from the pandemic, a decision that was met with widespread criticism from global leaders.

What should I do to minimize my coronavirus risk?

In most cases, COVID-19 is not fatal, but it appears to pose the greatest risk to elderly people and those with preexisting conditions that compromise their immune systems. According to the CDC, eight out of 10 deaths from COVID-19 in the U.S. have been adults age 65 and older.

Doctors and medical workers may also be at greater risk, due to their higher-than-average odds of exposure, and data shows that in many areas, including New York, black and Latino Americans have been dying at disproportionate rates.On April 10, President Trump said that the CDC is now recommending that Americans wear masks when they are out in public, though he stressed that the guidelines were voluntary, and said he would not wear a mask himself.

On April 15, Cuomo signed an executive order requiring New York residents to wear face coverings in public settings where they are not able to stay six feet away from other people, including buses, subways, sidewalks, and grocery stores.

Los Angeles has also ordered residents to wear masks when visiting essential businesses.The guidance on masks seems to be driven in part by concern about the number of asymptomatic individuals who may be infected and transmitting the virus. Speaking on April 5, Fauci estimated that between 25 and 50 percent of those infected with the virus may not experience any symptoms.

If you have symptoms associated with coronavirus — coughing, fever, respiratory issues — call your doctor before showing up at their office: The virus is highly contagious and you want to limit the possibility of spreading it. If you are sick, the CDC recommends that you stay home and self-isolate, confining yourself to one room as much as possible and wearing a face mask when you have to interact with others.

Wash your hands frequently — soap and water and at least 20 seconds of scrubbing — and avoid touching shared household items, cleaning “high-touch” surfaces (like your phone) regularly. Your health-care provider and even local health department will help you determine how long it’s appropriate for you to keep up these precautions.

Regardless of whether or not you have symptoms, though, keep your hands clean, and seriously, stop touching your face and just stay home.The day we meet is the day the first coronavirus case has been confirmed in his area, but Sebastian says that while his family have seen all the news about the virus, their reality remains the same.”Being undocumented it’s hard to get medical attention. There’s the aspect of presenting yourself to the legal system at medical facilities and that runs the risk of deportation,” he says.

“My family may not be criminals, but they sure are undocumented and seeing a doctor scares them.”For everyone in the US, whether they are undocumented or not, there is also the huge expense involved in even just seeing a doctor.More than 27 million people in America have no medical insurance at all, a number that has been growing dramatically during the Trump presidency.

A consultation with a doctor for someone without insurance costs hundreds of dollars.But there are tens of millions more who are classed as being “underinsured” – having basic insurance that often only covers a fraction of the cost of any check ups or treatment.

“During the flu season we are getting sick a lot, but taking my children to see their paediatrician costs $100 each visit just for a check,” says Lisa Rubio, 28, who has basic health insurance through her employer.”I started with a cough and a sore throat a week ago, but if the doctor tells me they can’t prescribe anything, that it’s just a virus, I have to decide whether it’s worth it to take away money from my bills and my children’s other needs.

“Last year, being underinsured contributed to a devastating episode for Lisa.”I got sick. I felt pain coming in my chest. But for me to go see a doctor even though I am insured, I couldn’t afford it so I tried to ignore the pain.””Two weeks later, in the middle of the night, my lung just collapsed completely. They had to do intensive care but said if I had caught it sooner, it would have been better,” she says.Lisa suffers these problems even though she herself is an administrator in a hospital in Tucson.

Dr Grivois-Shah says that even before the coronavirus, the huge number of patients going undiagnosed with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections was just one example of the public health crises being exacerbated because so many have no access to healthcare.”I have not seen any evidence that anything is going to be different with the coronavirus,” he says, unconvinced by the promises from Washington.

“For decades, we’ve been okay as a society knowing that there are so many in our community who are uninsured, underinsured, undocumented and unable to take sick leave,” he says.”These individuals without access to care are going to get sicker, are going to spread the disease more frequently because they’re not getting care or isolating, or getting diagnosed and treated. And we are going to pay the public health price because of what our society is okay with.”As it sweeps across nations, the coronavirus is exposing systemic flaws.

In China, it was freedom of information; here in the US it is the massive disparities in the way people are treated depending on their economic circumstances and their immigration status.The coronavirus of course does not discriminate on those grounds and having large sections of society being unable to see a doctor is suddenly in focus as not just being bad for the individuals themselves, but for the country a whole.

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93K Death : Trump and Chloro-quine

93K Death : Trump and Chloro-quine 

President Trump Battles Democrats and the Media on Chloroquine ...

93K Death : Trump and Chloro-quine– As worldwide cases of the coronavirus surpassed 5 million, all 50 states have at least partially reopened their economies as Connecticut loosened restrictions Wednesday and Illinois announced major modifications to its stay-at-home order.

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Also Wednesday, President Donald Trump said he will soon complete his controversial regimen of the drug hydroxychloroquine, and word came out that his former personal lawyer Michael Cohen will be released from prison. 

Also Wednesday, the Department of Health and Human Services said pharmacists would be allowed to order and administer coronavirus tests, even where they previously were not explicitly permitted.

93K Death : Trump and Chloro-quine– The U.S. has the largest coronavirus outbreak in the world with more than 93,000 deaths and 1.5 million confirmed cases, according to the Johns Hopkins University data dashboard. Worldwide, the virus has killed more than 328,000 people.

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Global coronavirus cases top 5M

At least 5 million people are known to have been infected with the coronavirus, showing the massive global reach of the pandemic.

The United States alone accounts for more than 30% of those cases, with at least 1.5 million confirmed coronavirus infections.

Epidemiologists say the number of cases around the world may actually be far higher than what is known as testing capacity lags, some countries may not be fully reporting data and people with the virus may not seek a test or may be asymptomatic. 

The virus first broke out late last year in Wuhan, China, before it traveled to Europe, ravaging Italy and Spain, then heading to the U.S., where New York City became the new epicenter.

Donald Trump says he’s nearly done with hydroxychloroquine regimen

President Donald Trump said Wednesday he will complete his regimen of hydroxychloroquine “in a day or two.”

Trump said Monday he was taking the drug, which he has repeatedly touted as a treatment for the coronavirus despite warnings about its effectiveness and side effects, to prevent contracting COVID-19.

Trump, who according to the White House has tested negative for the disease, stirred up a storm by saying he had been taking the drug daily for about a week and a half as an added measure to avoid being infected by the virus.

Michael Cohen set to be released from prison amid coronavirus outbreak

Michael Cohen is about to become the next prominent figure with close links to President Donald Trump to be allowed out of jail because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The president’s former personal lawyer is set to be released from a New York federal prison Thursday to serve the remainder of his term at home amid coronavirus fears. More than two dozen inmates and officers have been infected with the virus at the Otisville, New York, prison facility where Cohen was serving a three-year sentence for committing financial crimes and lying to Congress while working for Trump.

On May 13, former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was released to home confinement after his lawyers argued his age and several illnesses make him vulnerable to the virus. 

Americans carefully venturing back out, according to USA TODAY analysis

Americans are cautiously stepping back out as social distancing measures are relaxed throughout the country, but they’re proceeding much less swiftly than they did when originally told to stay home.

A USA TODAY analysis of anonymized cellphone data from more than 16 million devices shows movement fell 15% from the start to the end of March, the first month when shelter-in-place orders were issued. The share of mobile users leaving home nationwide crept up 5% from April 11 to May 11 as restrictions began to get lifted and some cabin fever set in.

Each state began to reduce trips away from home dramatically around March 11. Movement in every state bottomed out sometime between April 7 and 18.

Michigan conservative group holds ‘Operation Haircut’ on Capitol lawn

The Michigan Conservative Coalition, an organization intended to shape policy and help more conservatives win election, held what was dubbed Operation Haircut outside the Capitol on Wednesday. The group was protesting Gov. Gretchen Whitmer’s stay-at-home order and the closing of barbershops and hair salons.

Organizers said those attending were “encouraged to comply with social distancing and other safe practices” such as wearing masks, but people providing haircuts would not be able to remain six feet away from people getting them, as required by the order.

Donald Trump wants June G-7 summit to be staged at Camp David

President Donald Trump hasn’t given up on the idea of hosting a G-7 summit in person next month, and he wants to frame it as a sign of moving past the coronavirus.

The meeting was originally scheduled for June in Camp David, but Trump canceled it at the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic. At the time, the White House said the meeting would likely take place by video conference instead. 

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Trump, who has pressed for a return to normalcy despite warnings of a possible resurgence of the virus, said on Twitter that rescheduling the in-person gathering would show the USA and other countries are on the mend. 

“It would be a great sign to all – normalization!” tweeted Trump, who also wrote that the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland would be the ideal site.

All pharmacists can now administer COVID-19 tests, HHS says

As more COVID-19 tests become available, pharmacists will now be able to order and administer them, even in states or localities where they previously were not explicitly allowed to do so. 

The Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the General Counsel announced Wednesday that licensed pharmacists may conduct such FDA-authorized tests because the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act allows it to preempt such state rules.Many states proactively gave authority for pharmacists to administer these tests.  Although others may not have explicitly prohibited this, the HHS guidance removes any uncertainty in those states that haven’t given that explicit authority.

“Giving pharmacists the authorization to order and administer COVID-19 tests to their patients means easier access to testing for Americans who need it,” Secretary Alex M. Azar II said in a statement. “Pharmacists play a vital role in delivering convenient access to important public health services and information.”

Illinois takes major reopening steps

Illinois, which ranks third among states in total of coronavirus cases with nearly 100,000, announced major updates Wednesday as it enters the third phase of its reopening plan.

Among the modifications to the current mandate aimed at reducing the virus’ spread: Restaurants and bars can resume service for outdoor seating May 29. On that date, people will be allowed to gather in groups of 10 or less.

In addition, all state parks, boating, camping, tennis facilities and golf courses can reopen, and so can other enterprises like barber shops, nail salons, tattoo parlors, etc.

“Basically any store that wasn’t already open as an essential business can choose to open their doors to in-person shopping,” with safety precautions in place, when the state enters Phase 3 of its reopening plan, Gov. JB Pritzker said.

Millions more US jobless claims expected in next Labor Department report

The number of Americans filing new unemployment claims will likely continue to drop, but it’s still expected to reach the millions as the economic toll from the coronavirus pandemic ticks on.Between 2.3 million and 2.8 million Americans filed initial applications for unemployment insurance last week, economists estimate. That’s down from the 3 million who filed claims the week before and the record 6.9 million who sought assistance in late March.

But if the latest tally, which the Labor Department reports Thursday, matches estimates, it will mean roughly 39 million Americans will have applied for unemployment in just nine weeks, a staggering number that reflects the highest jobless rate since the Great Depression. He also appeared to propose irradiating patients’ bodies with UV light, an idea dismissed by a doctor at the briefing.

Another of his officials had moments earlier said sunlight and disinfectant were known to kill the infection.

Disinfectants are hazardous substances and can be poisonous if ingested.

Even external exposure can be dangerous to the skin, eyes and respiratory system.

What did President Trump say?

During Thursday’s White House coronavirus task force briefing, an official presented the results of US government research that indicated coronavirus appeared to weaken more quickly when exposed to sunlight and heat.

The study also showed bleach could kill the virus in saliva or respiratory fluids within five minutes and isopropyl alcohol could kill it even more quickly.

While noting the research should be treated with caution, Mr Trump suggested further research in that area.

“So, supposing we hit the body with a tremendous – whether it’s ultraviolet or just very powerful light,” the president said, turning to Dr Deborah Birx, the White House coronavirus response co-ordinator, “and I think you said that hasn’t been checked but you’re going to test it.

“And then I said, supposing you brought the light inside of the body, which you can do either through the skin or in some other way. And I think you said you’re going to test that too. Sounds interesting,” the president continued.

What’s the reaction been to Trump’s comments?

Doctors warned the president’s idea could have fatal results.

Pulmonologist Dr Vin Gupta told NBC News: “This notion of injecting or ingesting any type of cleansing product into the body is irresponsible and it’s dangerous.

“It’s a common method that people utilise when they want to kill themselves.”

Kashif Mahmood, a doctor in Charleston, West Virginia, tweeted: “As a physician, I can’t recommend injecting disinfectant into the lungs or using UV radiation inside the body to treat Covid-19.

“Don’t take medical advice from Trump.”

John Balmes, a pulmonologist at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, warned that even breathing fumes from bleach could cause severe health problems.

He told Bloomberg News: “Inhaling chlorine bleach would be absolutely the worst thing for the lungs. The airway and lungs are not made to be exposed to even an aerosol of disinfectant.

“Not even a low dilution of bleach or isopropyl alcohol is safe. It’s a totally ridiculous concept.”

Mr Trump has previously hyped a malaria medication, hydroxycloroquine, as a possible treatment for corona virus, though he has stopped touting that drug recently.

This week a study of corona virus patients in a US government-run hospital for military veterans found more deaths among those treated with hydroxychloroquine than those treated with standard care.

Reacting to the president’s remarks on Thursday evening, Joe Biden, his likely Democratic challenger in November’s White House election, tweeted: “UV light? Injecting disinfectant? Here’s an idea, Mr President: more tests. Now. And protective equipment for actual medical professionals.”

What’s the US government’s advice?

Only this week, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warned Americans to be careful with cleaning products as sales of household disinfectants soar amid the pandemic.

“Calls to poison centers increased sharply at the beginning of March 2020 for exposures to both cleaners and disinfectants,” found the agency’s weekly morbidity and mortality report.

The US Food and Drug Administration has warned against ingesting disinfectants, citing the sale of bogus miracle cures that contain bleach and purport to treat everything from autism to Aids and hepatitis.

The agency’s website says: “The FDA has received reports of consumers who have suffered from severe vomiting, severe diarrhea, life-threatening low blood pressure caused by dehydration, and acute liver failure after drinking these products.”

Last week a federal judge secured a temporary injunction against one organisation, known as the Genesis II Church of Health and Healing, for marketing a product equivalent to industrial bleach as a remedy for corona virus.

Top 10 Retailer

Top 10 Retailer


a. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.

b. Costco Wholesale Corporation

c. Kroger Company

d. Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc.

e. Tesco PLC

f. Carrefour SA

g., Inc.

h. Metro Group AG

i. The Home Depot, Inc.

j. Target Corporation

Top 10 Retailer

The future of retail lies not in technology, but in trust ...


This year, opened its site up to third party sellers by creating the Target+ program. Target did this as an extension of its artisans and global partners who make goods carried in-store, aiming to continue to help underrepresented businesses expand their distribution.

Target’s goal was to support third-party sellers’ growth while using their products to strengthen Target’s online shopping experience and meeting their customers’ (which they call guests) needs for more choices. 

Currently, the program, which is designed to expand key categories such as home furnishings, toys, electronics, and sporting goods, appears to be invitation only. It has recently added a supplier application portal and the process of registration is lengthy.

You will need to write a proposal, showcase how your products align with the company’s customers and make a clear case for consideration. Your company also must be at least 51 percent owned, controlled, and operated by women, ethnic minorities, LGBT persons, or veterans.  

When submitting your application, be sure to include high-quality photos, sales data, unique features, and explain what sets your products apart from others. Also, make sure your application aligns with Target’s goals. The fee structure is unknown for those accepted into the program.

Also, what’s very cool is that there is no way to specifically search for Target+ merchandise; products all fall into the company’s master merchandising mix!


Etsy is the original, most successful marketplace for people to sell handmade, vintage, and original craft items internationally. While similar marketplaces have come and gone, Etsy has managed to establish itself as the destination for non-commercially produced items.

The platform’s success can be credited for helping the handmade and artisanal movement go from niche cottage industry to a massively in-demand retail category. 

The Etsy marketplace currently operates in 83 countries and has 2.1 million active sellers and 39.4 million buyers who bought over 60 million products in 2018. In 2018, Etsy generated $603.7 million in sales and registered a net profit of $41.25 million.

Unlike Amazon (which averages 12 percent), Etsy has kept their fee structure in-line with what its sellers are willing to pay, charging a listing fee of $0.20 and a transaction fee of 5 percent of the price of an item (shipping is set by the seller on top of these fees). Etsy Plus members pay a flat $10 per month. 

For brands, makers, or sellers who want to develop quality sales channels for their goods, Etsy is a must given its low barrier to entry, quality controls, and ability to conduct wholesale or retail business. 


Bonanza is an online marketplace that empowers entrepreneurs to build a sustainable business based on repeat customers. Bonanza has designed itself as a platform that allows sellers to make sales and build a brand by developing relationships with their customers.

It encourages the retailers that use it to consistently invest in their business so that they not only have a firm foundation but can strategically grow through repeat customer purchases

They’ve also kept business scale simple, offering their sellers many automated features that are often hard to develop. For example, sellers can automatically sync their inventories to eBay, Amazon, and Shopify, edit product images, create marketing campaigns with Facebook and Google and even create zero-effort web stores (automatically built from your marketplace accounts).

Bonanza is considered one of the best choices for retailers with lifestyle brands or businesses; it has 25,000 registered fashion, beauty, home, and health-related businesses. Bonanza currently has 2.2 active million users. It has no listing fees for sellers.

You only have a 3.5 percent post-sale commission on sales under $500. In general, sellers keep around 97 percent of the money they make from selling on the platform. 

Facebook Marketplace

Facebook, one of the largest social networks on the web with 2.45 billion users, launched its marketplace three years ago in order to provide a better experience than Craigslist. Since its launch, the Facebook Marketplace has grown to more than 800 million people, retailers, and professionals sellers. 

Selling on Facebook Marketplace is an easy process, and it offers different features for businesses and frequent sellers. As a retailer, you’ll need to sync your up-to-date inventory and then wait a week or so for Facebook to review your products and approve them to sell on Marketplace.

If you use Shopify, BigCommerce, Channel Advisor, ShipStation, or Quipt, you can automatically connect your inventory feeds to the marketplace in several simple clicks. If you don’t have an inventory software they support, here’s how you get your products listed.

Recently, Facebook found that many of WhatsApp’s 1.5 billion users love talking about local small businesses. Because of this, Facebook created a new feature that lets small retailers create WhatsApp catalogs in order to create a mobile storefront for their businesses.

The catalogs allow you to showcase and share your goods so people can easily browse and discover something they would like to buy locally on the go. The catalog feature is available on both Android and iPhone in Brazil, Germany, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the UK, and the U.S.


Alibaba is a force to be reckoned with in the e-commerce world. It was founded in 1999 as a B2B portal to connect Chinese manufacturers with overseas buyers.

Today the marketplace is known as the “Chinese Amazon” and the platform provides C2C, B2C, and B2B sales channels, and offers many of the services that Amazon offers.  

Alibaba has upwards of 674 million users, about 775 million monthly mobile users and boasts a 60 percent share of the Chinese e-commerce market.

Alibaba’s growth is attributed to retailers who are actively competing for their share of consumer spending in China’s growing economy. 

The company currently has over 8.5 million online sellers. This year, Alibaba opened its marketplace to small to medium-sized U.S. sellers in order to compensate for lean e-commerce revenue growth due to U.S.-

China trade wars and online marketplace competition. In order to sell on Alibaba, you simply set up an account and follow their onboarding steps. Sellers don’t have any membership fees or set-up costs. Commission fees range from 5-8 percent. Gold supplier memberships start at $2,999 per year. 


eBay is one of the original, online marketplaces; it made over $95 billion in revenue in 2018. The online auction and shopping site currently serves 30 countries, 182 million users, and 25 million sellers worldwide.

It’s a marketplace ideal for anyone wanting to sell literally everything and anything — from collectibles and appliances to clothes and accessories — at an auction price.

eBay has 6.7 million sellers in the U.S. who have the ability to sell to 190 markets around the world. If you want to tap into the power of yet another channel with a vast global market share, eBay is a great option.

When selling on eBay, you’ll be looking at two primary types of selling fees – an insertion fee when you create a listing, and/or a final value fee when your item sells.

There are no setup, monthly, or annual fees to worry about. In general, the final value fee ranges between 10-12% of the sale. 


Overstock started out as an online marketplace exclusively selling surplus, closeouts, and returned merchandise. Today, Overstock also sells new merchandise and has drastically overhauled its partner program. Like Target, it has an extensive vetting program for companies it allows on the platform to sell. 

The site currently has over 30 million unique visitors each month. The company takes a more community-based approach to the people it allows on the platform since revising its strategy in 2011.

Overstock also now selects partners who support its initiatives that are designed to help global artisans, pet shelters, small business owners, and farmers. 

If you’re able to sell on Overstock, the registration is free and listing fees range from $0.10 to $3.15. The final value fee stands at 3 percent for items sold under $25. If items don’t land a sale, you can relist them as many times as you want until they sell.

Sellers have product advertising options that range between $1 to $13. Overstock charges a flat $4.95 shipping cost on all orders under $45. That $4.95 goes to Overstock, not the seller. Many sellers who use Overstock use a solution like Channel Advisor to help manage their presence there. 


Rakuten is considered the “Amazon of Japan”. More than 90 percent of Japan’s internet users are registered on Rakuten. Rakuten has expanded to at least 29 countries, including the U.S., and is planning to serve more countries in the coming years. The platform currently has 44,000 sellers and 105 million members. 

Unlike Amazon, Rakuten does not sell its own brands and the lower number of sellers limits competition. If you’re looking for an alternative to eBay or Amazon, Rakuten is worth a review, as it offers a high degree of customization, excellent product marketing opportunities, listing optimization features, and the ability to create highly customized visual storefronts. 

If you want to expand into Japan, Rakuten is how to test the waters. Rakuten has a $33 monthly seller fee, a product category fee of between 8 percent and 14.5percent and a $0.99 fee per item sold. The higher fees are offset by their seller loyalty program and e-commerce integrations and features. 

Amazon has almost become a must for retailers, wholesalers, or manufacturers. Internet Retailer estimates that the total value of transactions from U.S. consumers on reached $206.82 billion in sales last year (including sales of Amazon’s own products and of marketplace sellers).

This means Amazon alone accounts for 40 percent of U.S. online retail, and Amazon accounted for 43.3 percent of e-commerce gains in the United States last year. 

Amazon operates retail websites for 16 countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil, China, Japan, Australia, India, Singapore, Mexico, and Turkey.

As the largest Internet retailer in the world, Amazon is often where sellers launch their first online stores, and many thrive in this all-in-one marketplace alone. Amazon currently has 310 million active users and 90 million Prime members. 

Amazon offers sellers several options to wholesalers, manufacturers, brands, and artisans who want to sell on their platform. Amazon’s options include the ability to sell in 20 different categories (professional sellers can sell in up to 10), shipping fulfillment services, 1500+ app integrations, robust seller education resources,

and ways to market your products to all Amazon users. Amazon has also developed a customized handmade program for artisans who make their own products. 

Fees range depending on services and use of the platform. Seller fees range from 6-20 percent, averaging at about 15 percent If you want to sell using the professional account, you pay $39.99/month. If you sell as an individual, you pay $0.99 per item with no additional monthly fees.


7 Stores With the Best Layaway Programs in 2019

Walmart’s third-party seller platform has been exclusively available to U.S.-based sellers. Walmart has over 2 million third-party sellers that sell in 35+ product categories on its marketplace. has over 90 million active visitors each month. The company has been slowly expanding its online marketplace to sellers from other countries, including Canada, the United Kingdom, and China. 

Walmart (which bought and also operates has lagged behind in the e-commerce area, as its main focus has been the 11,438 stores and clubs in 27 countries, operating under 55 different names.

That’s quickly changing as Walmart has been actively buying online websites and brands since 2016. 

Their seller fees range between 8-15 percent and they don’t have start-up membership or listing fees. You must request an invitation to sell. This application gets you access to (you can still sell on Jet directly) and all of Walmart’s online properties if you’re accepted.

                        In the Other Views2019 was one of the hardest years in living memory for the retail sector – we saw slowing consumer spending, a push from consumers for an adoption of more ethical practices by retailers and a rapid increase in online sales.

This resulted in a massive number of store closures, over 9,000 in the US alone and profit warnings from multiple retail businesses. 
Despite these challenges, the world’s biggest retailers remain some of the highest turnover companies in the world and a recent report by the Institute for Real Growth (IRG) undertaken by Kantar/WPP highlights the sheer scale of these businesses.

All figures are estimates based on FY 2018 and/or year to date results for year to date March/April 2019. 
To make it on to the list of the top 50 retailers in the world companies need to turn over in excess of $24bn. The company with the lowest number of stores to make the list was H-E-B in the US with 384 and the company with the most stores was Seven&I in Japan with 37,346.
The US is the most recognized nation on the list with 17 of the companies being based there, followed by France with 7 and Germany with 6. China has just 4 retailers on the list –, Alibaba, Suning, and China Resources Enterprise. 
The top 10 retailers by turnover World Wide

  1. Walmart (US) – With $517bn in global revenue Walmart is still over double the size of Amazon, despite Amazon enjoying a significantly higher market capitalization. US-focused Walmart continues to expand internationally and 23% of revenue now comes from outside the US, 4% higher than Amazon. 
  2. Amazon (US) – The top online retailer globally with $213bn in revenue. The higher market capitalization of the business comes to its 5-year growth rate of 22% compared to just 1% for Walmart and $10bn in profits for the past financial year, significantly higher due to its highly profitable cloud computing business.
  3. Costco (US) – The value big-box retail saw $144bn in sales. This revenue was driven from just 788 sites – showing the big store model can certainly drive high volumes. 
  4. Schwarz Group (Germany) – The highest non-US entry on the list saw revenues of $130bn with 63% of revenue coming outside of Germany for the group that owns the Lidl supermarket chain and other retail assets. 
  5. Kroger (US) – With no international presence Kroger still generated $124bn in revenues from just 3,037 stores in the US. This is compared to Schwarz’s 12,000 stores and $130bn. 
  6. Walgreens Boots Alliance (US) – The largest pharmacy company in the world generated $114bn in revenue with 13% of sales coming from international businesses, most notably the high street pharmacy Boots, in the UK. 
  7. Home Depot (US) – The only home improvement company in the top 10 is Home Depot with sales of $108bn. The company is less likely to feel the threat of Amazon due to the specialized nature of the products it sells. 
  8. Aldi (Germany) – 70% of sales for Aldi now occur outside of Germany, showing how popular the German chain has become across Europe. 11,922 stores are estimated to generate sales of $109bn. 
  9. Carrefour (France) – Still Europe’s biggest supermarket chain by volume of stores – the French giant is now coming under increasing pressure across key markets from the German Schwarz and Aldi groups. Sales came in at $101bn. 
  10. JD.Com (China) – With sales of $94bn is twice the size of it’s more famous, certainly in western countries, competitor Alibaba. This high revenue has now seen the company invest heavily in other technology products. None of the companies revenue comes from outside of China.

Other stand out names on the list include Apple in 21st place with revenue of $59bn, Ikea in 22nd place with sales of $53bn and Alibaba in 25th place with sales of $49bn – although its growth rate of 44% over the past 5 years is more than double that of Amazon. 2019 might have been a hard year for the retail industry in general but it’s a sector where the big companies are only getting bigger and more powerful.

Who is No 1 in Corona

Who is No 1 in Corona

USA or China 

According to the latest figures collated by Johns Hopkins University, the US has overtaken China (1,507,798 cases-16 May) and Italy (224,760).But with over 11,300 Covid-19-related fatalities, the US death toll is overtaken China (4,633-China-90,113-USA) and Italy (31,763).

China's Battle with Coronavirus: Possible Geopolitical Gains and ...

The grim milestone came as President Donald Trump predicted the nation would get back to work “pretty quickly”. but it is laughing to people…..

How did the White House react?

Asked about the latest figures at a White House briefing on Thursday afternoon, President Trump said it was “a tribute to the amount of testing that we’re doing”.

Vice-President Mike Pence said coronavirus tests were now available in all 50 states and more than 11,952,481(16th May) tests had been conducted nationwide.

  • Trump says US tested more than S Korea – is he right?

Mr Trump also cast doubt on the figures coming out of Beijing, telling reporters: “You don’t know what the numbers are in China.”But later, he tweeted that he had had a “very good conversation” with China’s President Xi Jinping.

“China has been through much & has developed a strong understanding of the Virus. We are working closely together. Much respect!” President Trump said.

Coronavirus pandemic makes it clear Europe must choose US or China ...

Does the president still hope to ease restrictions?

Mr Trump has set a much-criticised goal of Easter Sunday, 12 April-2020, for reopening the country. That plan seemed to gather impetus on Thursday as it emerged an unprecedented 9.3 million Americans have been laid off because of the virus.

At Thursday’s briefing, he said: “They [the American people] have to go back to work, our country has to go back, our country is based on that and I think it’s going to happen pretty quickly.

“We may take sections of our country, we may take large sections of our country that aren’t so seriously affected and we may do it that way.”He added: “A lot of people misinterpret when I say go back – they’re going to be practicing as much as you can social distancing, and washing your hands and not shaking hands and all of the things we talked about.”What could he be planning?

Coronavirus Pandemic Will Not Change Global Order or Benefit China

In a letter to state governors on Thursday, Mr Trump said his team plans to release federal social distancing guidelines that may advise some regions to loosen restrictions.

Mr Trump wrote of a “long battle ahead” and said “robust” testing protocols might allow some counties to lift their safeguards against the coronavirus.He said the “new guidelines” would create low, medium and high risk zones that would allow the government to advise on “maintaining, increasing, or relaxing social distancing and other mitigation measures they have put in place”.

  • Trump knows economic meltdown brings political pain
  • What this crisis reveals about US – and its president

On Thursday night, Mr Trump phoned in to Fox News host Sean Hannity’s program and said he believed Iowa, Idaho, Nebraska and parts of Texas could reopen earlier than other states.

The plan emerged as new research on Thursday estimated Covid-19-related deaths in the US could top 180,000 over the coming four months – even if people observe strict social distancing.

As many as 2,300 patients could be dying every day by April(in an average), according to the study from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington’s School of Medicine.What’s the reaction?

The Republican president’s get-back-to-work goal found unexpected support on Thursday from a prominent Democrat.Governor Andrew Cuomo of New York, the current coronavirus epicenter in the US, said statewide quarantine orders may not have been the best approach to coronavirus.

“Young people then quarantined with older people was probably not the best public health strategy,” he told a news conference, “because the younger people could have been exposing the older people to an infection.”Mr Cuomo said a better way forward might be a “get-back-to-work strategy” in tandem with a public health strategy.

Public health experts on the White House task force have demurred when asked about reopening the country by Easter, suggesting the timeline should be “very flexible”.

Can the president order everyone back to work?

 On 16 March, he set a 15-day period to slow down the spread of Covid-19 by urging all Americans to drastically scale back their public interactions.But those guidelines were voluntary and did not amount to a national order.

The US Constitution makes clear states have the power for maintaining public order and safety, which scholars say means it is the responsibility of governors to decide when virus-related restrictions get lifted.Currently 51 US states have told residents to stay in their homes or ordered the closure of non-essential businesses in order to contain the pandemic.What’s happening elsewhere in the US?

There were growing fears that Louisiana could become the country’s next hot spot, with the governor warning that the state’s biggest city, New Orleans, were out of ventilators by 2 April and potentially out of beds by 7 April.

China unlikely to emerge as leader of post-coronavirus world ...

“It’s not conjecture, it’s not some flimsy theory,” John Bel Edwards told a news conference. “This is what is going to happen.”Additionally, Dr Deborah Birx, the co-ordinator of the White House coronavirus response, said two other cities showed signs of rapidly rising new infections – Detroit, where the mayor described the situation as “really concerning”, and Chicago.

In The Economic Sector ||

More countries currently see the United States as the world’s leading economic power than China. This is particularly true in Latin America and the Asia-Pacific region. Few name Japan or the European Union as the world’s leading economic power today.

But, while perceptions of current economic leadership are somewhat divided between the U.S. and China, when it comes to preferred global leadership, there is no competition. Majorities or pluralities in nearly every country surveyed say the future would be better if the U.S. were the world’s leading power than if China were.

U.S. seen as world’s leading economic power
The publics surveyed tend to believe the U.S. is the world’s leading economic power, albeit by a somewhat slender margin. Across 25 countries, a median of 39% name the U.S. as the top global economy, while 34% say it is China. Fewer say this about the EU or Japan.

Does China Need Allies? | The National Interest

America is seen as the leading economy in all three Latin American countries surveyed – Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In the Asia-Pacific region, only Australians are more likely (52% vs. 35%) to name China as the world’s leading economic power. Australians have, in fact, consistently named China over the U.S. since the question was first posed in 2008.

In sub-Saharan Africa, publics in Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa are divided in their views: No more than four-in-ten name either the U.S. or China as the world’s top economy.

European opinion, too, is mixed. In the two Eastern European countries surveyed – Hungary and Poland – the U.S. is the clear favorite. In the Southern European countries of Italy and Greece, too, more name the U.S. than China. But in France and the UK there is no clear consensus; nearly as many point to the American as to the Chinese economy.

 Meanwhile, in the Netherlands and Germany, opinion leans in favor of China. This is especially true in Germany, where about half (53%) view China as the world’s economic leader. Germans name the EU as often as the U.S. as the world’s leading economic power (21% vs. 19%).

Compared with a year ago, slightly more in the UK, France and Poland name the U.S. as the world’s leading economic power. By contrast, Germans are now less likely to see the U.S. as the globe’s dominant economy.

Regardless of which country people think is the current leading economic power, one thing is consistent: Most publics surveyed prefer the American leadership. When thinking about the future, a 25-country median of 63% say they prefer a world in which the U.S. is the leading power, while just 19% would favor one in which China leads.

In the Asia-Pacific region, few say they prefer China. Among China’s immediate neighbors, preference for the U.S. is particularly high: 81% of Japanese, 77% of Filipinos and 73% of South Koreans all favor a future where Washington, not Beijing, leads. In Australia – where 52% say China is the current leading economic power – nearly three-quarters still say they prefer a future where the U.S. is the world’s dominant power.

Argentina, Russia and Tunisia stand out as the only three countries where just one-third or fewer prefer U.S. leadership.

In many countries, preference for a U.S.-led world order is linked to ideology. Those on the ideological right are more likely than those on the ideological left to say that it’s better for the world if the U.S. is the dominant power. This ideological divide is most pronounced in Israel, where 74% of Israelis who self-identify as being on the right say they prefer Washington’s leadership, compared with 45% of those on the left.

During Quarantine

During Quarantine
The Best #1 Games to Play

During Quarantine

More than eight weeks into social distancing and quarantine in response to the corona virus pandemic, many of us have been keeping in touch with distant friends and family on video chat, via the ubiquitous Zoom, Face Time, House party, Google Hangouts or any other software

While it’s wonderful that we have the ability to see our loved ones on our screens while COVID-19 keeps us from getting together in person, there isn’t much to talk about in a world without school, sports, new movies or much news unrelated to the fight against the virus. If your Zooms are in a bit of a slump, a virtual game might jazz things up enough that you won’t need to pretend you’re jumping off the call to do some work

We’ve compiled a list of Zoom-friendly games – some video games, some board games and some that require no equipment at all – for a range of ages and occasions. Whether you want to plop the little ones in front of their grandparents to get a half-hour of rest or you miss Saturday night partying, there’s something on this list that will entertain you for the length of a call. 

Simon Says

We all remember this game from preschool. Someone is Simon, and everyone else playing has do to whatever “Simon Says.” Anyone who follows orders when Simon doesn’t utter the magic words is out.

Particularly good for wrangling a chat with five or more participants, and obviously for entertaining preschool and elementary school kids. And lest you think this is only for children, adults can enjoy it, too – there’s even an adults-only game of Simon Says in Season 2 of “The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel.”

Animal Crossing: New Horizons

If you’re not playing Animal Crossing yet, chances are you know someone who is. The recently launched Nintendo Switch game has been a best seller for the company and it’s easy to see why it’s so popular, especially in quarantine.

Users move to a deserted island in the life simulation game, fishing, growing flowers and fruit trees and designing their homes and a village. If you have a Nintendo online subscription, you can visit friends’ islands with your in-game avatar, and enter their houses, buy from their stores and generally have a good time.

Video chatting with your friends while you or they visit makes it even more fun – you can give a guided tour of every nook and cranny on your island.  

Dungeons & Dragons

The popular role-playing game set in a fantasy world is mostly verbal and usually played around a table, so it can be easily converted to digital form with each player conferencing in.

Trivia (of any kind) 

Quizzing your friends and family (or being quizzed yourself) is an easy, engaging way to liven up Zoom. All you need are questions and answers, which you can acquire from the cards in board games like Trivial Pursuit, or go online to research your own list of stumpers.

Here’s a pop culture freebie: Which movie won best picture in 1976? (Answer: “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.”) 

Drinking games

Strictly for responsible, adult-only Zooms (preferably on Friday and Saturday nights), there are ways to adapt classic college drinking games to suit a video chat format. While card games are out, classic secret-spilling games like Never Have I Ever are easily done remotely.

You can also watch movies and TV shows in tandem, and play the associated drinking games. But, like in college, you all have to agree on the rules of the game, and since you’re not in anyone’s home specifically, no house rules will likely apply.